27 Jul BRACHOS
In Devarim 10:12 the posuk tells us, “Now, what (ma) does Hashem want from you? Just to have yiras shomayim.” The Gemara Menachos 43a learns from this pokuk that we should not read the word as it is written, ma, but rather me’ah. A person must recite 100 brachos a day.
If someone makes a bracha levatala, it would not be counted toward the total of 100 brachos for the day. The question is whether or not a bracha she’eino tzricha has the same status of not. According to the Magen Avraham 47:5, a person cannot count a bracha she’eino tzricha as part of his 100 brachos.
What would happen if someone already heard kiddush himself but makes kiddush for family members who were not yotze kiddush yet? The bracha on kiddush is definitely counted as part of the 100 Brachos for those being yotze. What about for the person making kiddush? The same question applies regarding a shaliach tzibbur that already davened his own Shmoneh Esrei. The differentiation can be made that the shaliach tzibbur must repeat the Shmoneh Esrei even if there is no one being yotzei, but kiddush may not be repeated if nobody else is being yotze. What is the status of a bracha that was said when someone forgot Yaaleh Veyavo and davened again? Does that bracha count toward the total of 100 brachos? Does the first tefillah count and he just needs to repeat his davening to say Ya’aleh Veyavo, or does the first one not even count? The nafka mina would be whether he forgot Ya’aleh Veyavo on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, but did not forget Retzei, and upon repeating his bentching he forgot Retzei but not Ya’aleh Veyavo. Does he need to bentch a third time or not? If we say that he needs to bentch a third time, the brachos said the first two times would be considered a bracha she’eino tzricha and not a bracha levatala.
The Shelah and Magen Avraham argue whether or not one is allowed to make a bracha that is not needed in order to reach the total of 100 brachos. The Shelah says it is permissible to say a bracha she’eino tzricha to complete your me’ah brachos. What about if someone else has not completed their me’ah brachos? Is it permissible to say a bracha she’eino tzricha for someone else?
The Magen Avraham 655 says the fact that we allow a shvus d’shvus bemakom mitzva is only when you need this done for yourself, but not for someone else. There is a halacha in Shulchan Aruch that states that one is not permitted to commit an aveira to save someone else from committing a worse aveira. The Shaarei Tzion 5 argues with this position and says there is no difference between shvus d’shvus bemakom mitzva for yourself or for your friend. It would seem this argument can satisfy our question concerning whether or not someone can make a bracha she’eino tzricha for someone else. The Shulchan Aruch 354:5 tells us that if someone does not have what to eat on Shabbos, the chachamim were mattir him to be oiver on the shvus of rediyashapas and take enough bread out of the oven for three meals. The Biur Halacha says that only applies to feed himself, and not for his friend. We could reconcile between the two Mishna Berurasthat regarding rediyas hapas we don’t find any hetter to do it for someone else. However, when it comes to amira le’Akum, we do find that one may say the instructions on behalf of his friend. It would seem from this that one would not be able to make a bracha she’eino tzricha for a friend.
The Magen Avraham brings a raya from the Gemara in Yoma 70a that discusses the leining on Yom Kippur. The leining from Parshas Pinchas is done ba’al peh so as not to mish the Torah because of tircha detzibura. We don’t bring out another sefer because then they would be required to make another bracha, which is not needed. This took place on Yom Kippur, when we have a shortage of the me’ah brachos, yet we did not allow other brachos to be said unnecessarily. The Elya Rabba writes that this is true for the hamon am who did not have 100 brachos, but the Kohen Gadol did. He therefore could not make brachos on behalf of the hamon am.
May we all be zocheh to say and receive all the brachos!