27 Jul HALACHICALLY SPEAKING: SUMMER HALACHOS (PART 3)
Kiddush and Havdala
Some mention that one who wears a jacket and hat for davening should wear them for Kiddush as well, as this shows honor for the mitzvah. Others mention that one does not have to wear a hat for Kiddush.
In nursing homes, supper is generally served at a set time, which is usually before mincha in the summer. Obviously, one should try to delay the meal if possible. However, if this is not an option then one should make sure to eat a kezayis of bread after Kabbalas Shabbos and Maariv, and make sure to hear Kiddush.
It is very common to have one person make Kiddush for many people in a bungalow colony. If the one making Kiddush for others is sitting and the others are standing, it is not considered being together for Kiddush.
In the summer, people tend to daven early, make Kiddush, and then eat the meal later. One should make sure to make Kiddush again when he has his main meal, since there was a long delay between Kiddush and the actual meal.
In the summer when a Kiddush is made outside in a large area it may happen that one does not hear the Borei Pri Hagofen. If this happens then one should make his own Kiddush. If Kiddush is being made for a large crowd, one should make sure to get someone with a loud voice to make Kiddush.
Havdala is routinely recited in shul after davening. Bringing the besamim to shul before maariv is not considered preparing from Shabbos to weekday.
In sleepaway camp, havdala is usually made for the entire camp. Many people cannot smell the besamim, and the candle is too far to derive any benefit. Some suggest for those who are far away to have in mind not to be yotzei with the bracha on the besamim and candle, and after havdala make their own brachah. Others mention that one should have in mind to be yotzei but after havdala go smell the besamim and place their fingernails near the candle.
Many bungalow owners leave besamim from one season to the next. If one wishes to test the besamim to see if it is fit for havdala, no brachah is required.
Garlic on Friday Night
A custom exists to eat garlic on Friday night, but this can be a challenge if one is in the bungalow and does not have access to all the usual ingredients. Some mention that the garlic should be roasted, and since we are not sure how to prepare this we do not have the custom to eat garlic. Nevertheless, many still eat garlic on Friday night. Some eat cooked garlic as well. Some have the custom that even single men eat it. Women do not have the custom to specifically eat garlic on Friday night.
Candle Near Door
In the limited space of the bungalow, one should be careful not to light Shabbos candles in a place where the wind which is generated by opening the door of the bungalow would extinguish the flame (the same is true for opening a window even if there is a normal wind). One should try to open the door slowly if it is near a candle.
Seudah Time for Shabbos Day
In the summer with the nice weather, people like to hear Kiddush and then take walks after davening and speak with friends. Before they know it, it is after chatzos. Ideally, one should try to have his Shabbos day meal before chatzos.
Running on Shabbos
Running to the Shabbos seudah is not allowed, even for a child.
One may move winter clothes on Shabbos in the summer even if he will not be wearing them. They are not considered muktzah.
Carrying and Shabbos
One may wear a winter coat even in the summer since it is a garment.
Zipper in Coat
Some coats have a removable lining, which is attached with a zipper. Even after it is removed, part of the zipper remains in the coat. This is not an issue of carrying, since the zipper is part of the coat.
Handkerchief Around Neck
Some people use a handkerchief around their neck as a sweatband. The question is whether this is considered “wearing” the handkerchief, or if it considered carrying it.
It is not a simple matter to permit this, as one is not really wearing the handkerchief.
People routinely wear reflectors when walking in dark areas. This is only allowed on Shabbos if the reflector is part of a garment such as a vest, but wearing a belt reflector is not allowed (since it is not serving as a garment). Would it be ok if he uses the belt as part of his reckel or to hold up his pants?
Walking into Water
Children like to splash through water puddles. Ideally, they should be discouraged from this on Shabbos, since their shoes and socks get soaked and each step is a possible issue of sechitah.
Even on a hot summer day a tie is a garment and is not considered carrying.
Rain Coat Alternative
If one is caught in the rain without a coat, he may wrap a large sheet of plastic around himself. However, he may not make a hole in a garbage bag on Shabbos so that he can wear it like a poncho.
The sun is strong in the summer, and one might wish to wear a baseball hat on Shabbos for protection. Although an umbrella is forbidden due to making a tent (ohel) on Shabbos, a baseball hat is permitted since it is the normal practice to wear it. Therefore, it is no worse than a Shabbos hat. Others say that the brim of a Shabbos hat is simply a style, but does not serve to protect from the sun. A baseball hat may be different.
Water condensation which comes out of an air conditioner unit on Shabbos is not muktzah and may be moved. Why isn’t it nolad?
Lottery on Shabbos
On long Shabbos afternoons in the summer, children gather for pirchei or learning groups and have a raffle or lottery for prizes. Is this permitted?
The halacha is that if one has equal pieces of an item, he may make a lottery or raffle for his household to see who gets which piece. However, it is not permitted for non-family members. Since they might be jealous of each other, they might measure the items, which is forbidden. Some maintain that if the items are of different sizes it would be prohibited even with one’s household since it is considered gambling. This is prohibited even during the week. Furthermore, this looks like conducting business on Shabbos. However, others permit this within a household since they do not care about the outcome. The Ashkenazim rely on this latter opinion.
Lotteries for a mitzvah to decide who gets an aliyah for yartzeit is permitted.
If the shul sponsors the raffle on Shabbos, then people do not care if they lose. Therefore, there is no issue with making a raffle on Shabbos for boys who come to learn.
Using Well Water on Shabbos
The water in a bungalow comes from a well. When using the water, it can perhaps start the electricity which pumps the water from the well. There are no restrictions regarding using water on Shabbos. One of the main reasons is that when turning on the faucet one has no intention of doing a melacha, and it is not definite that his action will start the pump.
Dust and Stones in Shoes
Roads are often unpaved in bungalow colonies, and people often get dust and stones in their shoes. Some mention that one should be careful to stop and remove the stone from his shoes on Shabbos.
Fixing Locks on Shabbos
Some screen doors latch with a hook and eye. If the hook is a little bent, one may bend it back into place. This is not considered fixing a utensil on Shabbos. One should not replace the eye on Shabbos.
A large insect may not be killed on Shabbos, but one may place a cup over it to isolate it.
When using ice cubes on Shabbos to cool a drink, one should put the liquid in the cup first and then the ice cubes. One should not use an ice maker on Shabbos which works by filling up with water when it senses that there is no ice in the ice bucket.
Some people fill a bottle halfway with water and freeze it on its side. Then they add a drink to the bottle and shake it to create an instant cold drink. This is permitted on Shabbos.
Melted Ice Cream
Melted ice cream is not considered a new entity on Shabbos (known as nolad), and one may eat this melted treat.
Placing Water in Freezer on Shabbos
It is permitted to place water in the freezer on Shabbos afternoon in order to have a cold drink on motzai Shabbos.