11 May TIME FOR TORAH
The Magen Avraham in Orach Chaim 494:1 asks, how can we say that Shavuos, which comes out on Vov Sivan, is the time of Mattan Torah? We pasken like Reb Yosi who holds that the Torah was given on Zayin Sivan and according to us, the 50th day culminates on Vov Sivan. The Magen Avraham brings down an additional question from the Asara Mamoros. We know that the Yidden left Mitzrayim on a Thursday and Kabbolas HaTorah took place on Shabbos. This automatically comes out 51 days after the second day of sefirah. It comes out, that according to Reb Yosi, the Torah was not given neither on Vov Sivan, which is the day that we celebrate, or the fiftieth day after sefira since it is really the fifty first day. Why do we celebrate on Vov Sivan, which is neither Mattan Torasainu, nor seven full weeks since Pesach? The Asara Mamaros answers that it is a remez for Yom Tv Sheini of Galuyos. The Chok Yaakov asks the following question. According to this, the second day of Yom Tov should be the main day, and in Eretz Yisroel they only celebrate the first day! How could it be that the main day is not even celebrated in Eretz Yisroel? Therefore, he says we use the words “Zman Matan Toraseinu,” even though it is not “Yom Matan Toraseinu.”
There are a number of other tirutzim to answer this question. The first tirutz is that the reason the celebration of Mattan Torah is Vov Sivan is that the ratzon of Hashem initially was to give the Torah on Vov Sivan, but Moshe added a day. The Torah was therefore given on Zayin Sivan, but the zman was on Vov Sivan.
The second tirutz is based on what we say in the Haggada: that it would have been enough for us to go to Har Sinai even if we did not get the Torah. This is because when the Jews approached Har Sinai their tumah was stopped. This zman of tumah stopping was predestined from Brias Haolam, where it says Yom HaShishi. Yom HaShishi means the Torah was supposed to be effective on a Friday, and the sixth of Sivan. Once it was a day that was mesugal min Hashomayim, it does not lose its koach so we celebrate it and call it “Zman Matan Toraseinu.”
A third tirutz explains that when the Yidden saw that they were not on the level of kabolas HaTorah on Vov Sivan, the day was pushed back. But the day they acknowledged that they were not fit to get the Torah showed their incredible level of Yiras Shomayim, which fits with the Mishna in Avos 3:11 that states whoever has yiras cheit before Chochmas HaTorah, then his Torah will last. Based on this, says the Imrei Emes, Hashem will only give chochma to those who have chochma. The question is, what is the original chochma to which Hashem adds more chochma? The answer is based on posuk in Tehillim 111:10 that says Reishis Chochma is Yiras Hashem. That is why we celebrate Vov Sivan, the day when we became yirai Shomayim.
A fourth tirutz is that the Torah was supposed to be given on Friday and the Bnei Yisroel felt that they were not eligible to accept the Torah. They felt they needed kedushas Shabbos as a support for being eligible to accept the Torah. This anivus of Klal Yisrael was very beloved to Hashem, as the posuk in Mishlei 22:4 says, Hashem rests with the anavim. Therefore, the day they decided to be anavim became the celebration of “Zman Matan Toraseinu.”
One last tirutz concerns the mitzvah of hagbala, which was given the day before Mattan Torah. This is the day we celebrate because the ikkar kiyum of Torah is for a person to know his place and make gedarim so he should not be oveir on the Torah. We therefore celebrate the day of us accepting the kabala of the gedarim.
It is interesting to note that the Chasam Sofer holds that when Moshiach is going to come, Eretz Yisroel will stretch and there will be places where the shluchim of Bais Din will not be able to reach on time. There will therefore be Yom Tov Sheini shel Geulah. This will be the case despite the fact that we may have telephones etc. This comes to show us that a tzivuy of Bais Din must be heard via Shaliach Bais Din, and not electronically.
May we be zocheh to celebrate Yom Tov Sheini shel Geulah!